MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE

Since the lungs are exposed to a fresh bombardment of dust particles, irritants and pathogens such as bacteria, fungi or viruses with every breath, an effective clearance system is essential. The smallest particulate pollutants are assimilated and decomposed in the alveoli alveoli
The pulmonary alveoli are the terminal ends of the respiratory tree.
, mainly by macrophages. Outside the alveoli alveoli
The pulmonary alveoli are the terminal ends of the respiratory tree.
, the function of the mucociliary clearance mucociliary clearance
Describes the self-clearing mechanism of the bronchi.
system is assured by ciliated epithelia, which cover the entire respiratory tract. The surface of these epithelial cells is in turn covered with fine hairs, the cilia.  The cilia are surrounded by a fluid mucous layer, the periciliary liquid. This ciliary layer is covered by the viscous mucus that traps foreign matter and microorganisms. The coordinated movement of the cilia in the periciliary liquid – like a cornfield in the wind - transports the mucus together with foreign matter towards the mouth, where it can be swallowed or coughed up.
The efficiency of this clearance mechanism depends on the number of cilia, their structure and motility, and the quantity and consistency of the mucus. 
If the muciliary clearance function is disrupted, as happens for example in mucoviscidosis (cystic fibrosis cystic fibrosis
Genetic disorder that affects most critically the lungs, leading to thick, viscous secretions.
), PCD PCD
Primary ciliary dyskinesia - Defect in the action of the cilia lining the respiratory tract.
or Kartagener syndrome, the effects can be severe, sometimes life-threatening.
If the mucociliary clearance mucociliary clearance
Describes the self-clearing mechanism of the bronchi.
is impaired in its function, eg in cystic fibrosis cystic fibrosis
Genetic disorder that affects most critically the lungs, leading to thick, viscous secretions.
or Kartagener syndrome leads to severe, sometimes life-threatening symptoms. .

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