A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #
A

Aerosol

An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.

Aerosol characteristic

Characteristic of droplet distribution and quantity.

Allergen

An allergen produces an abnormally vigorous immune response (allergies).

Allergy abstention

Avoidance of allergens.

Allergy

An overreaction of the immune system to a previously ordinarily harmless substance.

Alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency

Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a type of protein. AAT deficiency means there is not enough of this protein in the body. It is caused by a genetic defect. Severe AAT deficiency can cause emphysema or COPD in adult life.

Alveoli

The pulmonary alveoli are the terminal ends of the respiratory tree.

Anamnesis

The medical history of a patient gained by a physician by asking specific questions about symptoms and the course of disease.

Anticholinergic drugs

Anticholinergic drugs are a group of bronchodilators.

Antileukotriene

Leukotrienes are mediators involved in the development of asthma. Antileukotriene are drugs for the treatment of asthma.

Asthma

Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease, characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.

Atopie

The genetic tendency to develop the classic allergic diseases.

B

Beta2- sympathomimetic

Sympathomimetic agents are drug of choice for bronchodilation.

Bodyplethysmographie

Body plethysmography is a type of pulmonary (lung) function test. The test involves sitting in an airtight booth and blowing into a mouthpiece while a computer records measurements.

Bronchialobstruktion

Airway obstruction is a blockage of respiration in the airway that causes breathing difficulty.

Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis is an abnormal widening of one or more airways. Extra mucus is made in the abnormal airways which is prone to infection.

Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis is an abnormal widening of one or more airways. Extra mucus is made in the abnormal airways which is prone to infection.

Bronchus

Passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs.

Bronchitis

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi, the larger and medium-sized air passages of the lung.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)

Bronchoalveolar lavage is a surgical procedure used to obtain samples of fluid washings from the lining of the respiratory tract, specifically around the alveolar and bronchial spaces.

Bronchodilator

A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchiole.

Bronchoconstriction

Bronchoconstriction is the medical term for the narrowing of the airways.

Bronchoskopy

Bronchoscopy is a test to view the airways and diagnose lung disease. A long flexible tube with a tiny camera is passed through the nose or mouth into the lungs.

Bronchospasmolytic

Relaxing of the bronchial system.

Bronchospasmolytic

Drugs that relax the bronchial system

D

DD

Delivered Dose -The amount of drug that is supplied from the inhalation system

Delivered Dose

The amount of drug that is supplied from the inhalation system

DNCG

Dinatrium Cromoglicicum; anti-inflammatory.

DPI

A dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.

Dry Powder Inhaler

A dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.

M

MDI

Metered-dose inhaler - A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.

Mass fraction < 5 µm

Masspercent of particles in droplets < 5 µm

MDI

A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.

MMD

Mass median diameter – The mass median diameter (MMAD) is the diameter such that half the aerosol particles is contained in particles with larger diameter and half the particles with smaller diameter, i.e. M normalized (MMD)=1/2.

Metered Dose Inhaler

MDI: A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.

MMD

Mass Median Diameter (MMAD) is defined as the diameter at which 50% of the particles by mass are larger and 50% are smaller.

Mukopharmaka

Mucopharmaka are a class of drugs which aid in the clearance of mucus from the airways.

Mucociliary clearance

Describes the self-clearing mechanism of the bronchi.

E

Exerzabation

Worsening of a disease

Emphysema

Long-term, progressive disease of the lungs that primarily causes shortness of breath due to over-inflation of the alveoli (air sacs in the lung).

F

FEV1

Forced expiratory volume in 1 second. FEV1 is by far the most frequently used index for assessing airway obstruction, bronchoconstriction or bronchodilatation.

H

Hypertonic saline

A saline solution that contains higher saline concentrations like 3/5/6/7 % sodium chloride (compared with normal saline solution at 0.9%).

Hyperventilation

Beschleunigte, vertiefte Atmung.

Hypoventilation

Too shallow or too slow breathing

I

Inspiratory Flow

Indicate the volume inspired from the nebuliser, simulated during an in vitro analysis.

Isotonic saline

An aqueous solution of 0.9 percent sodium chloride, isotonic with the blood and tissue fluid.

C

Corticosteroide

Class of drugs that regulates inflammation in different respiratory diseases.

Croup

Croup (or laryngotracheobronchitis) is a respiratory condition that is usually triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway. The infection leads to swelling inside the throat, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classical symptoms of a "barking" cough, stridor, and hoarseness.

cystic fibrosis

Genetic disorder that affects most critically the lungs, leading to thick, viscous secretions.

L

Laryngitis

Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx.

N

Nedocromil

Nedocromil is classified as a cromone. It acts as a mast cell stabilizer and has anti-inflammatory effects.

Noxe

Harmful substance.

O

Obstruction

Increased resistance in the airways that reduces the amount of air inhaled in each breath and the oxygen that reaches the pulmonary arteries.

obstructive

Increased resistance in the airways that reduces the amount of air inhaled in each breath and the oxygen that reaches the pulmonary arteries

P

PCD

Primary ciliary dyskinesia - Defect in the action of the cilia lining the respiratory tract.

Peak-flow-Meter

A peak-flow-meter is a small hand-held device that measures how fast air comes out of the lungs when a person exhales forcefully. It can be used to manage asthma.

PEP

PEP: Positive expiratory pressure. By breathing out with a moderate force through a resistance, a positive pressure is generated in the airways, helping to keep them open. This positive pressure allows airflow to get beneath the areas of mucus obstruction and move the mucus toward the larger airways, where it can be coughed out.

Pharyngitis

It is an inflammation of the throat.

Pneumology

Pulmonology is the medical specialty dealing with disease involving the respiratory tract.

Pneumonie

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung.

Pneumothorax

A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall.

primary ciliary dyskinesia

PCD - Defect in the action of the cilia lining the respiratory tract

R

RD

The amount of respirable drug (Particle size < 5 µm) that is supplied from the inhalation system.

RDDR

The amount of respirable drug that is supplied at the mouthpiece per minute.

Respirable Dose

The amount of respirable drug (Particle size < 5 µm) that is supplied from the inhalation system.

Respirable Drug Delivery Rate

The amount of respirable drug that is supplied at the mouthpiece per minute.

Respirable Fraktion

Amount of respirable drugs (particle size < 5 µm).

S

Secretolysis

Production of thin fluid mucus (secretolysis) for its eased removal.

Sinusitis

Sinusitis or rhinosinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.

Spirometer

Spirometry is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs), measuring lung function, specifically the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled.

Sputum

Sputum is mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways.

Stridor

Stridor is a high-pitched musical breath sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the larynx or lower in the bronchial tree. Stridor is a physical sign which is caused by a narrowed or obstructed airway.

T

Total Output Rate

Amount of inhalation liquid in mg that is supplied at the mouthpiece per minute.