The upper airways:
The upper airways serve as the point of entry to the airways as a whole. It is divided into three areas, which work closely together in many ways:
The nose with the paranasal cavities (the maxillary sinuses, frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus and the ethmoidal cells), the pharynx, and the larynx. The upper airways are coated with a layer of mucus.
Diseases of the nose (rhinitis rhinitis
Eine akute oder chronische Entzündung der Schleimhaut durch infektiöse, allergische und pseudoallergische Mechanismen. ), the paranasal cavities (acute and chronic sinusitis sinusitis
Sinusitis or rhinosinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. ), the pharynx (pharyngitis pharyngitis
It is an inflammation of the throat. ) and the larynx (laryngitis laryngitis
Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. , pseudocroup) can be caused by viral or bacterial pathogens, or they can also take the form of an allergic reaction.
The lower airways:
The lung consists of the trachea, bronchial system (bronchi and bronchioles) as well as the air cells of the lung (alveoli alveoli
The pulmonary alveoli are the terminal ends of the respiratory tree. ). It can be divided into a central, middle and outer area.
Diseases affecting the lung include coughs,bronchitis bronchitis
Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi, the larger and medium-sized air passages of the lung. , pneumonia pneumonia
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung. , asthma asthma
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease, characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm. , COPD and cystic fibrosis cystic fibrosis
Genetic disorder that affects most critically the lungs, leading to thick, viscous secretions. .